Everything You Need To Know About HVAC Systems

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As cleanrooms are enclosed, controlled environments, it is incredibly important that one of the key elements to be considered in the design and build of any cleanroom is the type of HVAC system that will be installed. HVAC stands for Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning, and these systems are responsible for maintaining air quality within cleanrooms to ensure that the strict guidelines required in the operation of a cleanroom are met across a range of industries, such as pharmaceutical manufacturing, biotechnology, animal health and more. 

An Introduction To HVAC Systems

HVAC systems are an essential component to consider when designing a cleanroom, regardless of Class, due to the required levels of air control and sophisticated filtration. The HVAC systems installed in our cleanrooms use HEPA, otherwise referred to as high-efficiency particulate air filters, to remove any harmful particles or pollutants from the air. 

What are the components of a HVAC System? 

The type of HVAC system used in a cleanroom will ultimately depend on the Class of cleanroom being designed and built, however a HVAC System consists of four main components, and each must be designed and installed to meet cleanroom criteria. These components are what sets these system types apart from more well-known systems such as AC (or air conditioning) systems. These components are heating units, cooling units, a ventilation system and a filter, and are a requirement for high class cleanrooms with strict air quality requirements, but are used in a variety of buildings such as residential, commercial and industrial buildings to ensure thermal comfort and high quality air conditions. 

HVAC Component 1: Heating Unit 

The heating unit typically fitted in HVAC systems used within cleanrooms are typically a furnace, boiler or heat pump, which ensures that the temperature of the cleanroom does not get too low. This component is particularly important for use in cleanrooms in which products are required to be stored at a certain temperature, or for cleanrooms which are located in particularly cold climates, to ensure adequate working conditions for staff. 

HVAC Component 2: Cooling Unit

The cooling unit typically fitted in HVAC systems used within cleanrooms are air conditioning units, used to remove any heat from the air. As above, this component is used in hotter climates, both to ensure thermal comfort and adequate working conditions, as well as when required to keep products at a certain temperature. 

HVAC Component 3: Ventilation System

The HVAC ventilation system brings fresh, clean air into the cleanroom, whilst also working to remove stale air, which ensures the air quality is maintained at the required standard. This process is completed through a number of functions but generally vents, air ducts and fans are used, depending on the type of HVAC system installed. 

HVAC Component 4: Filter 

The final of the four HVAC components, the filter, removes any pollutants in the cleanroom's air. This process is typically completed through the use of a mechanical or electronic filter, to remove pollutants that include dust, mould spores, pollen, spoke and even gases.

What is the difference between an AC and a HVAC unit? 

The main difference between air conditioning (AC) and heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) units is that a HVAC, as described, has a broader use system. Whilst AC units are only able to alter the coolness of the air, HVAC systems can do this, heat and filter the air, too. 

What are the benefits of HVAC systems? 

Aside from being required for cleanroom standards to be met, as aforementioned, HVAC systems are installed in a range of building types such as residential and commercial areas too, due to the variety of benefits gained from this technology. 

Benefits of HVACs include:


  1. Increased comfort for occupants and staff
  2. Greater air quality which in turn reduces the risk of respiratory problems
  3. Improved energy efficiency, saving on cost 

What key elements should be considered before selecting a HVAC system for a cleanroom?

Due to strict industry requirements, the choice of HVAC system used within a cleanroom design is a hugely important one. From model type to size, warranty requirement and even location, there are a number of factors to consider, all of which our expert team can advise on with your needs in mind. 

Key consideration factors include:

  • Cleanroom Size 
  • Local Climate 
  • System Cost 

At T-SQUARED, our dedicated team of cleanroom design and installation experts are well positioned to advise on design, requirements, maintenance and installation of HVAC systems of all sizes and for all cleanroom classes. Get in touch today to find out more, or discover our range of projects to discover how T-SQUARED can assist you, as we have done with some of the United Kingdom’s biggest manufacturers.