What Is A Cleanroom, And Why Are They So Important?

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Cleanrooms are an essential component in various industries, including semiconductor manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, and aerospace, due to their critical role in maintaining cleanliness and preventing contamination. This blog post will explore the fundamental characteristics of cleanrooms, the industries that heavily rely on them, and the significance of ISO classifications in defining these controlled environments.


A cleanroom is a controlled environment designed to minimise the presence of pollutants such as dust, airborne microbes, aerosol particles, and chemical vapours. Its primary objective is to reduce contamination during manufacturing or research processes. Achieving this goal involves the use of specialised filtration systems, maintaining positive air pressure, and implementing strict protocols for personnel and equipment entering the area.

What industries require cleanrooms?

Cleanrooms are indispensable in the semiconductor industry, where the manufacturing of microchips and delicate electronic components demands utmost cleanliness. Even the slightest particles can cause defects in circuits, making cleanrooms crucial for ensuring high yields and reliable products.

Moreover, the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors heavily rely on cleanrooms to maintain sterility and prevent cross-contamination. These controlled environments are utilised for manufacturing drugs, vaccines, and medical devices, where cleanliness and aseptic conditions are paramount.

In the aerospace and defence sectors, cleanrooms play a vital role in assembling and testing sensitive components like satellites, spacecraft, and military equipment. Cleanrooms ensure that these critical systems are protected from contaminants that could compromise performance or safety.

Understanding ISO Classifications

Having answered “what is a cleanroom” and some of the industries that require such controlled environments, the next part is understanding how cleanrooms are classified and regulated. 

To effectively regulate such controlled and clean environments, it is essential to comprehend the strict standards that define them. The International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) provides classification guidelines based on the number and size of particles permitted per cubic meter of air. The different ISO classifications for cleanrooms are:

ISO Class 4 (Class 10)

Commonly used in industries such as semiconductor manufacturing and nanotechnology. These cleanrooms allow a maximum of only 10 particles, sized 0.5 micrometres or larger, per cubic foot of air.

ISO Class 5 (Class 100)

Widely used in pharmaceuticals and biotechnology, these cleanrooms allow a maximum of 100 particles, sized 0.5 micrometres or larger, per cubic foot of air.

ISO Class 6 (Class 1,000)

Required for industries such as optics, research laboratories, and precision engineering. These cleanrooms permit a maximum of 1,000 particles, sized 0.5 micrometres or larger, per cubic foot of air.

ISO Class 7 (Class 10,000)

Suitable for electronics and medical device manufacturing, these cleanrooms permit 10,000 particles, sized 0.5 micrometres or larger, per cubic foot of air.

ISO Class 8 (Class 100,000)

Often found in industries such as aerospace and automotive, these cleanrooms allow 100,000 particles, sized 0.5 micrometres or larger, per cubic foot of air.

The Importance Of Cleanrooms

The importance of cleanrooms extends beyond maintaining cleanliness. Firstly, they uphold stringent cleanliness standards, ensuring the production of high-quality products. By minimising contamination from particles, microbes, and chemical vapours, cleanrooms prevent product defects and maintain the highest standards of quality and reliability. This fosters confidence in customers and end-users, enhancing the reputation of both the products and the companies producing them.

Secondly, cleanrooms play a critical role in safeguarding the health and well-being of personnel and patients, especially in the healthcare, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology sectors. Acting as a protective shield against harmful substances, cleanrooms create a safe working environment, reducing the risk of contamination-related health issues. Additionally, cleanrooms maintain sterile conditions during crucial procedures such as drug manufacturing and medical device production, ensuring patient safety and the integrity of life-saving products.

Furthermore, cleanrooms significantly contribute to optimising manufacturing processes by minimising downtime caused by contamination-related issues like equipment malfunction or product rework. By providing an environment with reduced disruptions, cleanrooms enable uninterrupted production, leading to improved efficiency, reduced costs, and faster time-to-market for products. 

Lastly, cleanrooms provide an ideal setting for research and development activities. The precise control over environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and particle levels allows researchers to conduct experiments with minimal interference from external contaminants. This controlled environment is particularly valuable in scientific disciplines where even the slightest contamination can compromise the accuracy and validity of results. By facilitating reliable and reproducible experiments, cleanrooms drive advancements in technologies, innovations, and scientific knowledge.

To conclude, cleanrooms offer a range of advantages that go beyond their role in maintaining cleanliness. They ensure product quality, protect the health of personnel and patients, optimise manufacturing processes, and provide controlled settings for research and development activities. Cleanrooms are invaluable assets in industries prioritising excellence, safety, efficiency, and scientific advancements.

When considering the implementation of a cleanroom solution for your business, T-SQUARED is the perfect partner. With over 20 years of experience serving various sectors, we specialise in providing turnkey, end-to-end solutions for the complex and dedicated facilities required by high-tech regulated industries. Contact us today, and our team of experts will assist you in creating a tailor-made cleanroom environment that meets your specific needs. Experience the benefits of a state-of-the-art, contamination-free workspace.